When I tried to edit a post via the SE android app, I got the red error message 'This account is not allowed to suggest edits'. I then tried the desktop website where it did work.
Is this a bug in the SE android app?
It is not possible to suggest edits through the app at present. This is a known limitation of Stack Exchange API, on which the mobile apps rely. See Android app should send edits to edit queue if necessary rather than rejecting them which has status-planned.
This part is outdated, per Dave Haney's comment
While it's true that bugs can be reported on local metas, for mobile apps it is much more efficient to report them on SE Meta. There's no point in scattering bug reports over 100+ per-site metas, when the subject matter has nothing to do with the sites themselves.
SE meta has the tag
android-app which the app developers monitor closely. We don't, and even if we had one, it's not a given that developers will immediately find it and add it to their filter.
However, some points remain