In general, yes. Question-bans and answer-bans are almost independent (good answers can help to some extent to lift or avoid a question-ban and vice versa, but the greatest role is played by the posts of the affected type). But if your answers are also poorly received, you can also be answer-banned.
However, question-bans and answer-bans are nowadays not permanent1 - unless you try really hard - they age away, and mostly are but a rate-limiting. If your questions/answers are poorly received, you will be blocked from asking or answering for a while or limited to ask at most one question per week. If future questions/answers are well-received, that was that. If future questions/answers are also poorly received, you will encounter a new ban, which lasts longer than the previous. But except in extreme cases, that will also expire in a bearable time.
Unlike earlier, undeleting questions to improve them is usually no longer important, the visible content on the site has much greater impact.
1 The old ban was permanent in the sense that it did not expire after a fixed time. However, it was lifted when certain thresholds of the score/total votes on the content were crossed, so it was not absolutely permanent. The new bans expire automatically after some time (at least the first few iterations).