As the screenshot shows, my MathJax is not rendering and there's no word from the console (other than a bunch of probably-irrelevant CSS errors I didn't show). I restarted with add-ons disabled and this did not fix the problem.
Curiously, messing with my account's math preferences on Wikipedia appeared to do something. I didn't catch a screenshot of it, but changing to the setting "MathML with SVG or PNG fallback" caused one title to render correctly and the others to show "math processing error". This did not have an effect on the rendering of the pages, which was still LaTeX markup, and I have not been able to reproduce it since.