When voting for closing/reopening a question, or for deleting it, for how long can other users see it in the review queues?
What's going on with other types of votes: low quality answer, for instance. What about the suggested edits?
As Asaf said usually items stay in a queue until the "review task" is "completed" (not for some period of time). What exactly this means varies depending on the queue.
For the "close queue" the main "exit" scenarios are:
Until one of these happens the item usually stays in the queue.
It is however also possible that the question leaves the queue because it has no reason to be there anymore. That is, it has not active close votes or flags anymore, as the existing ones aged away or got redacted (see below).
Further reasons for a question to leave the queue include, the question getting deleted or locked or likely also it getting bountied, so making them ineligible for closing to begin with.
Once the item is outside the queue it can be put back in via a fresh vote to close. See also What governs whether I see a post in the Close Votes review queue?
That one can cast a vote to close again is a bit orthogonal. A vote to close that did not result in closure is as mentioned above discarded under certain criteria, based on number of views, the review queue, and the time.
Such a vote that aged away can be recast after some time. I believe two weeks after it disappeared, which often makes it often about two and a half since one cast it. See Age close votes after 14 days, regardless of views, allowing recasting for related info.
The situation for other queues is similar.
For "reopen" it is about the converse of "close."
A suggested edit can be applied, (applied with modification,) or rejected. Until one of these actions happens due to the votes of the reviewers, or other actions (like a conflicting edit) the suggestion stays pending in the queue. The standard threshold is two votes (in favor or against); there are some exceptions to this.
An item stays in the low-quality queue until it is deleted or found good enough (or edited). And so on.
This situation means that the queues could get clogged with some items. But so far its fine. Yet, indeed, for close votes on SO there used to be a problem, and as a response the aging-away criteria got adapted.