It seems you do not fulfill all criteria, namely you miss the 'positive question record.' You are informed about this when you click the progress bar.
This may be due to you having some deleted questions; from those visible it seems you would fulfill it but it is close enough to be plausible that a few deleted questions would change it.
In more detail, the criterion for having a positive question record is:
$$Q_T \ge 2(Q_N + Q_C + Q_D)$$
where $Q_T$ is the total number of questions ever asked (i.e., including deleted ones), $Q_N$ is the number of questions with negative score, $Q_C$ is the number of questions closed, and $Q_D$ is the number of deleted questions. (Side-note: to be precise, questions closed and/or deleted only after 60 or more days do not count as closed or deleted here.)
The visible record gives
$$27 \ge 2(5 + 6 + 0)= 22$$
with the deleted one in the comments we are at
$$28 \ge 2(5 + 6 + 1)= 24$$
so this would still be alright.
Yet, with just one more questions closed with negative score and then deleted, it would not be alright anymore. Indeed, according to Jyrki Lahtonen there are a couple of deleted questions, yielding $37 \not \ge 2(6+7+10) = 46$.
To sum it up the badge was not awarded yet because while OP did "ask a well-received question on 5 separate days" OP did not "maintain a positive question record," which is part of the condition for this badge. If one does or does not "maintain a positive question record" is indicated in the window one gets when clicking on the progress bar.