I posted an answer to this question $m^2+2017=n^3$ has no solutions, but I had read the question wrong. I pressed the Delete button but is there any way or need to wipe it off the books completely?
There is no need to do more than the regular delete that you did. In fact, there is even no effective way to do more by yourself. (I occasionally see users that edit their post into a blank post when deleting, but this is not good practice in my opinion. It does not really remove anything, as the revisions are preserved, while it creates a bump to the question,even when done after deletion.)
It is very rare that more is done to remove a post. If ever it should happen to you that you accidentally post something that you really need to get removed, say some sensitive data, flag the post for moderator attention and explain the problem. They can do something about it.