Today I found myself in a bit of a discussion (if I'm being honest, it seemed more like an argument) with a user who closed a question. I am reasonably new to contributing to the site, and the user who did the closing certainly is not. As such, I want to get a sense of how inline their actions are with the general Math SE ethos - as well as know how to handle similar situations in the future. To me the "Be welcoming, be patient, and assume good intentions" standard the site has should bear some weight in the discussion (see: https://math.stackexchange.com/help/be-nice).
A question was asked by a Low-Reputation User (LRU) about a specific part of an answer in another post. It stands to reason that the LRU couldn't comment within the other post, and so they opened a new post. The question itself seemed, to me, to be on-topic, interesting enough to warrant its own post, and very distinct from the original post. The person who answered the original question unilaterally closed the new post as a duplicate (using gold-badge privileges).
Now, after some discussion, it seems that the user who closed the question did so because they didn't appreciate the user "deliberately trying to circumvent the rules of the site" or failing to "minimally" contribute to the site to be able to post comments. My responses were simply that the question didn't seem to violate any particular rules, was on-topic, and deserved to stand on its own right. Moreover, question asking is a form of site contribution. Now, I don't necessarily advocate the circumvention of rules, but I also don't believe that 'question policing' should be done using standards of morality rather than site rules. As such, I have the following questions:
Question 1: Is it appropriate to vote to close this type of question? If so, on which grounds?
Question 2: Is it appropriate to use badge privileges to unilaterally close this type of question?
Question 3: Was it appropriate to use "duplicate" as a reason for closure.
Remark The question has been self-deleted (Thus only those who have 10k+ reputations are able to read this link).