Recently there was a change made that gives question askers ten points for each up-vote. Doesn't this reduce the impact of down votes? A person can get 5 upvotes and 4 downvotes - with a reputation net gain of 42 and their question will show a +1.
It is not exactly clear to me what type of answer you are looking for, but for what it's worth:
Yes, as far as reputation points are concerned the relative impact of downvotes on questions is reduced; now five downvotes cancel one upvote while formerly they canceled two, as the deduction of two points per downvote was not changed.
This is "by design" and not considered as problematic possibly even desirable by those that had the idea to do this.
It might be worth noting that this is not new, but a return to what was done originally. Indeed, originally, downvotes on questions also took a point to cast. Thus, it was still more restricted then it is now.
Side note: Personally I am not keen on that change to say the least, but realistically I think it will not change much anyway, just as the first change that is now reverted did not change much.
To my knowledge, the change doesn't affect the auto-delete feature (aka "roomba"). So in this context, one upvote doesn't cancel out
2.5 5 downvotes.
I asked on meta.SE if it affects question bans, and I was informed it doesn't affect those either.