About the first part of your question (about low effort posts) - this is exactly what the "missing context" close reason is for. (Of course, context is wider than just effort - there are also other ways to include context than just own attempts at the problem. A reasonable explanation what is meant by context can be found in the "Provide Context" section in How to ask a good question.) See also: New changes to close reasons. You can find some other related links in the corresponding tag-info.
It is worth mentioning that there used to be a close reason called homework, it was removed in 2013. There also was a tag called homework, which was removed in 2014.
For the second part about standard posts, you can check the posts on the main which are tagged faq and also the lists collected here on meta such as: List of Generalizations of Common Questions, Catalog of limits and Catalog of standard exercises. (I have tried something similar for a few specific topics here: Would “organizer posts” be useful/welcome here? But as you can see, so far there are only three such posts listed there.)
But even the lists created automatically by the software can serve this purpose - if you check the frequent tab of some tag, you can see there questions which appear frequently, so they are in a way "standard questions" in the given tag. (This is what you get in the calculus tag. You can look at frequent questions in general - without choosing a specific tag. But if you're interested in a specific topic, restring this by the choice of the tag might help.) Do not forget to switch from frequent back to your preferred view when you browse the site further.