I just re-read this answer of mine and noticed I'd made some claims without proper references. I will edit this if I find time, but it will require a bit (not that much of course) of work because I wrote all references as plain text. Is there a way to make references enumerate themselves automatically here as in LaTeX?
Short answer: not something built-in.
Longer answer: for a work around, you can use-and-abuse the hyperlink function of the MarkDown syntax. In particular, instead of
[Displayed Text](Hyper link address)
you can use
(note the square brackets!) with linkname defined at the end of the post
[linkname]: hyperlink address
So for your references 1 and 2 in your post, I would write, for example (using the AMS style Author-Year labels)
See references [GI84] and [GI84a]. Yada yada. This other thing is also proven in [GI84a].
(when the link name is the same as the displayed text, you can omit one set of the brackets) and link to the mathscinet portal
[GI84]: http://www.ams.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=729648 [GI84a]: http://www.ams.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=729652
Here's what the above snips would look like: